Roblox CFrame

In Roblox, a CFrame (coordinate frame) is an object that encodes position and rotation in 3D space.

You can create a CFrame with the new() constructor, which accepts a set of 3d coordinates:

local cframe =, 10, 0)

CFrame is a property of Roblox Part. You can move a Part by assigning a new the CFrame to it:

local part ='Part')
part.CFrame =, 10, 0)

Note that it's the same as assigning a Roblox Vector3 to the Position property.

part.Position =, 10, 0)

However, CFrame can also include information about a Part's rotation.

You can also construct a rotated CFrame using the Angles constructor. It takes the rotation around each axis in Radians:

part.CFrame = CFrame.Angles(0, math.rad(90), 0)

That's the same as assigning a rotational Vector3 to the Orientation property (although here we pass angles in degrees):

part.Orientation =, 90, 0)

You can combine a position CFrame with an Angles CFrame by multiplying them together:

--- Place a part at 0, 10, 0 with Orientation 0, 90, 0.
part.CFrame =, 10, 0) * CFrame.Angles(0, math.rad(90), 0)

Later in the article, we'll look at what is happening under the hood when multiplying two CFrames.

CFrame has many handy constructor methods.

You can create a CFrame that looks at another Part using the lookAt constructor:

local thing = game.Workspace.Thing
local position =, 0, 0)

part.CFrame = CFrame.lookAt(position, thing)

A CFrame can be used to calculate relative position from CFrame. For example, if I want to put a Part in front of a player's face, no matter which direction they're facing (even if they're upside down), we can use the ToWorldSpace() method:

local relativePositionOfNewPart =, 0, 10)
part.CFrame = character.Head.CFrame:ToWorldSpace(relativePositionOfNewPart)

That method is the equivalent of multiplying the left CFrame by the right character.Head.CFrame * relativePositionOfNewPart (note that CFrame multiplication is not communitive - the order matters).

A CFrame is composed of 4 Vectors.

  1. Position vector (x,y,z)(\mathbf{x}, \mathbf{y}, \mathbf{z})
  2. Right vector (rX,rY,rZ)(rX, rY, rZ)
  3. Up vector (uX,uY,uZ)(uX, uY, uZ)
  4. Look (front) vector (lX,lY,lZ)(lX, lY, lZ)

The right, up, and look vectors are perpendicular vectors that describe the CFrame's rotation.

You can also access each vector using their respective properties:


You can view the raw values using the Components method:

local x, y, z, rightX, rightY, rightZ, upX, upY, upZ, lookX, lookY, lookZ = cf:Components()

We can use the output of this function to serialize CFrames to a Datastore. When creating a furniture placement system, for example.

Under the hood, Roblox multiplies CFrames by structuring into a Matrix like this:

[rXuXlXxrYuYlYyrZuZlZz0001]\begin{bmatrix}\textcolor{red}{rX} & \textcolor{green}{uX} & \textcolor{blue}{lX} & \textbf{x} \\ \textcolor{red}{rY} & \textcolor{green}{uY} & \textcolor{blue}{lY} & \textbf{y} \\ \textcolor{red}{rZ} & \textcolor{green}{uZ} & \textcolor{blue}{lZ} & \textbf{z} \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 1\end{bmatrix}

This example shows a simple matrix multiplication example. Multiplying a 90° rotated CFrame with a straight facing vector two up. Note how the result CFrame is two studs higher than the original CFrame. This is the equivalent of using ToWorldSpace(cframe).

Matrix multiplication CFrame