## Softmax Activation Function

The Softmax function converts a vector of numbers into a vector of probabilities that sum to 1. It's applied to a model's outputs (or Logits) in Multi-class Classification.

It is the multi-class extension of the Sigmoid Activation Function.

The equation is:

$\sigma(\vec{z})_{i} = \frac{e^{z_i}}{\sum\limits_{j=1}^{K}e^{z_j}}$

The intuition for it is that $e^{x_i}$ is always positive and increases fast, amplifying more significant numbers. Therefore, it tends to find a single result and is less useful for problems where you are unsure if inputs will always contain a label. For that, use multiple binary columns with the Sigmoid Activation Function.

Howard et al. (2020) *(pg. 223-227)*

Code example:

```
import numpy as np, pandas as pd
```

```
def softmax(x):
return np.exp(x) / np.exp(x).sum()
```

```
logits = np.array([-3.5, -2.37, 1.54, 5.23]) # some arbitrary numbers I made up that could have come out of a neural network
probs = softmax(logits)
```

```
pd.DataFrame({'logit': logits, 'prob': probs}, index=['woman', 'man', 'camera', 'tv'])
```

logit | prob | |
---|---|---|

woman | -3.50 | 0.000158 |

man | -2.37 | 0.000488 |

camera | 1.54 | 0.024348 |

tv | 5.23 | 0.975007 |

Softmax is part of the Categorical Cross-Entropy Loss, applied before passing results to Negative Log-Likelihood function.

#### References

Jeremy Howard, Sylvain Gugger, and Soumith Chintala.
*Deep Learning for Coders with Fastai and PyTorch: AI Applications without a PhD*.
O'Reilly Media, Inc., Sebastopol, California, 2020.
ISBN 978-1-4920-4552-6. ↩